Thoughts on enterprise IT

Dustin Amrhein

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Related Topics: Cloud Computing, IBM Journal, Cloud Application Management, Enterprise Solution Architecture, Private Cloud

Private Cloud: Article

Challenges Facing the Enterprise Private Cloud

Four common obstacles when implementing a private cloud

It seems like the last several months have brought a rapid increase in the number of organizations getting serious, really serious, about private clouds in their enterprise. By this, I mean they are going beyond working on ROI documents, formulating strategies, and doing referential research. They are starting to put their preparation to good use in the form of implementation work. Maybe it just so happens that many of the customers I work with are arriving at this phase at the same time, but I would wager a bet that this is more or less happening in many companies.

Luckily, I have been able to be a part of the private cloud rollout for many of my customers, from the initial strategy and architecture talks to the implementation plans. One thing that has become clear is that regardless the industry or size of the company, there are technical challenges lying in the grass ready to attack the most well planned implementations. Having seen more than a few of these rollouts, I thought I would share four commonly encountered challenges, along with some insight into each:

1) Image management: In many private clouds, virtual images are the foundation on top of which users will build value. Effectively and efficiently managing the virtual images that you will need for your cloud is no small task. First, you need to decide on a centralized repository for your images that provides governance in the form of version control, fine-grained access, change history, and much more. Moreover, this repository should provide easy integration to the component(s) that will drive provisioning into your private cloud. Advanced image management solutions will go further by decoupling base binary images from the minor configuration changes needed by various users of that image. This will serve to keep the number of images in your repository to a minimum, thereby significantly reducing management overhead.

2) Service management: While many private cloud initiatives start small and tackle a specific problem in the enterprise, expanding its reach to other areas in the company is usually a medium to long-term goal. Once the private cloud expands beyond a relatively narrow scope, organizations must tackle the challenge of effectively managing the various services offered on the cloud. In other words, the need for a service catalog becomes quite pronounced. In adopting a service catalog, be on the lookout for a few key capabilities. Like with the image management solution, you want to have basic governance capabilities, but you also need to have a meaningful way to organize and surface services to end-users. You need to be able to impose degrees of service discoverability to users based on their organizational role. In addition, you should be able to define SLAs and associate them with services in your catalog.

3) Self-service access: This sounds simple. I mean, you want to put a web front-end on the services in your cloud and let users easily provision services, right? Well, that may be the end goal, but there are usually other considerations when we discuss self-service in an enterprise's private cloud. It goes beyond having proper access controls, since that is mere table stakes. Usually self-service access in the enterprise means properly integrating with ticket request solutions already in place. Enterprise users should definitely be able to easily request services, but that should not come at the expense of having a measure of control over what happens upon receipt of that request. I am not saying that every request for a cloud-based service requires human approval, but it is important that the organization be able to submit that request to basic rules that decide what should happen. This may result in automatic, immediate provisioning, or it may mean that an administrator needs to take a closer look.

4) Meaningful elasticity: One of the most eye-catching, intriguing aspects of cloud is probably the idea of elasticity. Users get exactly the right amount of resource at exactly the right time. Who wouldn't like that idea? The trick is that unmanaged elasticity may not be what every enterprise wants. Depending on the situation or the service, the enterprise may want to subject elasticity events to a rules engine that decides whether the system really should grow or shrink. To be clear, I do not mean a rules engine that looks at technical factors (CPU, memory, storage, etc.). I am talking about an engine that allows the enterprise to subject elasticity events to business rules. For example, companies should be able to dictate that scaling out a poorly performing back-office application should not adversely affect the performance of a revenue generating application.

These are just a sampling of some of the recurring challenges I run across these days. Personally, I think these challenges are what make working in this space exciting. Both providers and consumers are in the mode of forging a new road for IT. Will there be some bumps in the road? Yes. Can we solve them? Yes, and that is where the fun is!

More Stories By Dustin Amrhein

Dustin Amrhein joined IBM as a member of the development team for WebSphere Application Server. While in that position, he worked on the development of Web services infrastructure and Web services programming models. In his current role, Dustin is a technical specialist for cloud, mobile, and data grid technology in IBM's WebSphere portfolio. He blogs at You can follow him on Twitter at